Saif M. Mohammad
Researcher in Computational Linguistics, National Research Council Canada


Picture: Palau De La Música Catalana (Palace of Catalan Music). Architect: Antoni Gaudi.
Sa(i)fe Place links contact info. resume publications research (MSc) research (PhD) meet Saif pictures


  Recent News and Publications (since 2014)

Dr. Saif Mohammad is Senior Research Officer at the National Research Council Canada (NRC). He received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Toronto. His research interests are in Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing, especially Lexical Semantics. He develops computational models for sentiment analysis, emotion detection, semantic distance, and lexical-semantic relations such as word-pair antonymy. His team has developed a sentiment analysis system which ranked first in recent SemEval shared tasks on the sentiment analysis of tweets and on aspect-based sentiment analysis. His word-emotion association resource, the NRC Emotion Lexicon, is widely used for text analysis and information visualization. His recent work on generating music from emotions in text has garnered widespread media attention, including articles in Time, LiveScience, io9, The Physics arXiv Blog, PC World, and Popular Science.

Complete List of Publications


  • Several word-emotion association lexicons (such as the NRC Emotion Lexicon), word-sentiment lexicons (such as the NRC Hashtag Sentiment Lexicon), and word-colour association lexicons are available here.

Notable Press Mentions

  • PC World, May 15, 2014: AI System Reads Novels, Writes Music for Them.
  • Popular Science, May 14, 2014: Robot Reads Novels, Writes Songs about Them.
  • io9, May 12, 2014: Researchers Train Computers to Manipulate Human Emotions with Art.
  • LiveScience, May 11, 2014: 'TransProse' Software Creates Musical Soundtracks from Books.
  • TIME, May 7, 2014: This Is What Classic Novels Sound Like When a Computer Turns Them Into Piano Music.
  • SlashDot, March23, 2014: Algorithm Composes Music By Text Analyzing the World's Best Novels.
  • The Physics arXiv Blog, March 20, 2014: The Music Composed By An Algorithm Analysing The World’s Best Novels.
  • Glass Hammer, December 3, 2013: Are Your Emails Communicating a Lack of Confidence?
  • Singularity Hub, November 10, 2013: Algorithm Tracks Literary Emotion in Shakespeare, the Brothers Grimm.
  • The Physics ArXiv, October 4, 2013: Data Mining Reveals the Emotional Differences in Emails Written by Men and Women.
  • SlashDot, October 4, 2013: Data Mining Reveals the Emotional Differences In Emails From Men and Women.
  • The Physics ArXiv, October 1, 2013: Text Analyser Reveals Emotional Temperature of Novels and Fairy Tales.
    • Also in EduBits
  • SlashDot, October 1, 2013: Text Analyzer Reveals Emotional 'Temperature' of Novels and Fairy Tales
  • The New Scientist, September 27: What your email style says about your personality
    • Also in Times of India, MSN, Pharmacon, Galileo, Amic, and others
  • Article in MIT Technology Review, September 5, 2013: How Mechanical Turkers Crowdsourced a Huge Lexicon of Links Between Words and Emotion.
  • TIME, August 14, 2013: Main Tweet: Researchers Dig Into The Intersection of Politics and Twitter.




All news entries


Sentiment After Translation: A Case-Study on Arabic Social Media Posts. Mohammad Salameh, Saif M Mohammad and Svetlana Kiritchenko, In Proceedings of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL-2015), June 2015, Denver, Colorado.


Explore the interactive visualization for the NRC Word-Emotion Association Lexicon.


My N is Ten Million: Using Social Media to Track Emotion, Mental Health, and Measure Personality Across Entire Populations. Gregory J Park, Saif M Mohammad, and Johannes C Eichstaedt. A symposium at the International Convention of Psychological Science (ICPS), March 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Texts. Saif M. Mohammad and Xiaodan Zhu. Tutorial at the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods on Natural Language Processing, October 2014, Doha, Qatar.
Presentation   Video    Proposal

Professional Community Involvement

I am serving as Publicity Chair for the 2015 meeting of the North American Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL-2015). I am also the Area Chair for Sentiment and Opinion Mining.

Invited Talk

The Words are Alive: Associations with Sentiment, Emotions, Colours, and Music. Invited talk at Language Technology Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, September 2014, Pittsburgh, PA.
Presentation    Video

Journal Paper

Sentiment, Emotion, Purpose, and Style in Electoral Tweets. Saif M. Mohammad, Svetlana Kiritchenko, Xiaodan Zhu, and Joel Martin. Information Processing and Management, in the press.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX     AnnotatedData    UnannotatedData

Invited Talk

Words: Evaluative, Emotional, Colourful, Musical! Keynote speech at the ACL 2014 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment, and Social Media (WASSA), June 27, 2014, Baltimore, MD.

Professional Community Involvement

I am one of the organizers of SemEval-2015 Task 10 - Sentiment Analysis in Twitter. Of special interest to me is subtask E - Determining strength of association of Twitter terms with positive sentiment (or, degree of prior polarity). Task description, trial data, test data, and other details available here.

Journal Paper

Sentiment Analysis of Short Informal Texts. Svetlana Kiritchenko, Xiaodan Zhu and Saif Mohammad. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, volume 50, pages 723-762, August 2014.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX


NRC-Canada-2014: Detecting Aspects and Sentiment in Customer Reviews, Svetlana Kiritchenko, Xiaodan Zhu, Colin Cherry, and Saif M. Mohammad. In Proceedings of the eighth international workshop on Semantic Evaluation Exercises (SemEval-2014), August 2014, Dublin, Ireland.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX     Poster

Official Rankings: Our team (NRC-Canada) ranked first in three of the six subtasks. About 30 teams participated.

NRC-Canada-2014: Recent Improvements in Sentiment Analysis of Tweets, Xiaodan Zhu, Svetlana Kiritchenko, and Saif M. Mohammad. In Proceedings of the eighth international workshop on Semantic Evaluation Exercises (SemEval-2014), August 2014, Dublin, Ireland.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX     Poster

Official Rankings: Our team (NRC-Canada) ranked first in five of the ten subtask-domain combinations. About 40 teams participated.

An Empirical Study on the Effect of Negation Words on Sentiment. Xiaodan Zhu, Hongyu Guo, Saif Mohammad and Svetlana Kiritchenko. In Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, June 2014, Baltimore, MD.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX

Semantic Role Labeling of Emotions in Tweets. Saif M. Mohammad, Xiaodan Zhu, and Joel Martin, In Proceedings of the ACL 2014 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment, and Social Media (WASSA), June 2014, Baltimore, MD.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX     AnnotatedData    UnannotatedData

Generating Music from Literature. Hannah Davis and Saif M. Mohammad, In Proceedings of the EACL Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature, April 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX    TransProse Website

Notable Press Mentions: The Physics arXiv Blog, March 20, 2014, TIME, May 7, 2014, PC World, May 15, 2014, Popular Science, May 14, 2014, io9, May 12, 2014, LiveScience, May 11, 2014.

Journal Papers

Experiments with Three Approaches to Recognizing Lexical Entailment. Peter D. Turney, Saif M. Mohammad, Natural Language Engineering, in press.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX

Using Hashtags to Capture Fine Emotion Categories from Tweets. Saif M. Mohammad, Svetlana Kiritchenko, Computational Intelligence, in press.
Paper (pdf)    BibTeX

All news entries

Last updated: February 2015.